Бияшева З.М., Тлеубергенова М.Ж., Шайзадинова А.М. Генетические эффекты радона и его дочерних продуктов распада в краткосрочных тест-системах Drоsорhilа melаnоgаster

Казахский национальный университет им. аль-Фараби; Казахстан, г. Алматы

  • Бияшева З.М., Тлеубергенова М.Ж., Шайзадинова А.М Казахский национальный университет им. аль-Фараби

Abstract

The high radiation background of Kazakhstan territory is due to large deposits of uranium ores andtheir extraction, the accumulation of mining and uranium processing waste, the consequence of nuclearweapons tests and other natural and man-made factors. All this leads to contamination of the environment with radionuclides as well as the radon release and accumulation, formed during the decay ofradioactive elements. Radon radionuclides compose more than half of the entire radiation dose whichon average the human body receives from natural and technogenic radionuclides of the environment.It is proved that radon is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer. This is due to the release oflarge positively charged particles – α-particles – during its decay. Therefore, the aim of this work was toevaluate radon genetic effects in a short-term test-system with attached X chromosomes and attachedX-Y chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Short-term test-systems on Drosophila melanogaster fliesallow determining the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of environmental components and «tryingon» or transfer the results to human’s organism. The advantage of Drosophila melanogaster flies as atest object is a well-studied genetics, minimum restrictions on laboratory use, relative cheapness, andthe absence of complex manipulations in content. To determine the genotoxic effects of radon, we usedfemales EP-2 with attached X-chromosomes and X-Y chromosomes and irradiated wild-type Oregonmales. The isotopes of plutonium and uranium were used as sources of α-radiation. Line EP-2 containschromosomal rearrangements with the gene position effect. The emergence of conditional mutations is aconsequence of gene position effect, they arise when the structure of regulatory genes responsible for thedevelopmental alternate path and the formation of intraspecific features of the organism are disturbed.Their manifestation at the level of the organism (entirely or in part) depends on the structure of otherregions of the genome. One of the conditional mutation bright properties is morphoses formation – noninherited morphological disorders that are formed when the stressful environmental factors influence theorganism. As a result of flies analysis in first generation the following morphoses were identified: blackspots or melanoma on the abdomen, thorax, wings; twisted, curved, undirected wings or their absence;disturbance of wings venation, deformation of the head, eye, thorax;; the formation of blisters on thewings and on the abdomen, etc. All the disturbances had an asymmetric manifestation and looked likeugliness. The observed morphological changes and the results of statistical analysis indicate the genotoxic activity of α-radiation, the source of which in nature is often radon and its daughter decay products(DDP).Key words: morphoses, radon, α-radiation, Drosophila, genotoxicity
Published
2018-10-07
How to Cite
ШАЙЗАДИНОВА А.М, Бияшева З.М., Тлеубергенова М.Ж.,. Бияшева З.М., Тлеубергенова М.Ж., Шайзадинова А.М. Генетические эффекты радона и его дочерних продуктов распада в краткосрочных тест-системах Drоsорhilа melаnоgаster. Eurasian Journal of Ecology, [S.l.], v. 55, n. 2, p. 16-25, oct. 2018. ISSN 2617-7358. Available at: <http://bulletin-ecology.kaznu.kz/index.php/1-eco/article/view/812>. Date accessed: 10 dec. 2018.
Section
ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЕ НА ОКРУЖАЮЩУЮ СРЕДУ АНТРОПОГЕННЫХ ФАКТОРОВ И ЗАЩИТА ОКРУЖАЮЩЕЙ СРЕДЫ