Бержанова Р.Ж., Мукашева Т.Д., Игнатова Л.В., Сыдыкбекова Р.К., Бектилеуова Н.К, Омирбекова А.А. Распространение актинобактерий в некоторых почвах Казахстана и их экологические функции

Казахский национальный университет имени аль-Фараби, Казахстан, г. Алматы, e-mail: raihan_07_77@mail.ru

  • Бержанова Р Ж

Abstract

This article discusses the specifics of the diversity of actinomycete complexes of different soil typesin Kazakhstan. It is known that the soil is a heterogeneous habitat and it contains various groups andtypes of microorganisms. Among the microorganisms, the most common are soil actinomycetes. It is inthe soil contains their basic quantity. Each type of soil differs in composition of the microbial cenosis,which creates the impression of significant dynamics in their numbers. The purpose of this study was tostudy the quantitative and qualitative composition of actinomycetes of the main soil types in Kazakhstan, identify the dominant groups and determine their biological significance. When determining thenumber of actinobacteria in the soil, one can say about their abundance and richness, and these indicators depend on the depth and type of soils. The number of actinomycetes in the studied 15 soil samples in Kazakhstan was from 103 to 105 CFU / g soil. The actinomycete complexes of the investigated soilsare distinguished by a considerably greater taxonomic diversity. The frequency of occurrence of theactinomycete complex was differentiated into groups of species: dominant (≥ 85%), typical frequent (≥60%), typical rare (≥ 40%) and random (<40%). It was also revealed that the succession changes in thecomplex of actinomycetes in the same soil essentially depend on its moisture content. In the studied soilcomplexes of actinomycetes, in most cases, the most stable and dominant are streptomycetes. The mainbackground in the soils was composed of representatives of the genus Streptomyces. In the course of thework, biosynthetic activity was determined in 338 isolates of actinobacteria. It was found that 94 strainshad proteolyticactivity,cellulosolytic activity was detected in representatives of the genus Streptomyces.The expressed amylolytic activity is characteristic for the genera Actinomadura and Streptomyces. Theability to fix nitrogen is established in the genera Actinomaduraand Chainia. It was found that moststrains produced IAA in the amount of 3 μg / ml to 15 μg / ml, they can be classified as inactive. The remaining 55 strains produced IAA in excess of 25 μg / ml. As a result of the studies, many members of thegenus Streptomyces have found a phytohormone-like effect, more closely related to auxin-like activity.They also have the ability to synthesize the enzymes of the cellulase complex. 42 strains of actinobacteria actively producing acid metabolites are selected. These strains can be attributed to phosphate-solubilizing cultures of representatives of the genus Streptomyces. Summarizing the results of the studies,itcan be noted that the complex of actinomycetes in various types of soils in Kazakhstan is represented bythe genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura and Chainia. As a resultof the work carried out, new microbiological fertilizers will be developed, which, being environmentallyfriendly, can provide increased yields of crops, improve their health and promote the production ofimproved quality. The work was done within the framework of the project № 0211РК01075 «Development of a scientific and methodological and information database on microbiological diversity of soilsin Kazakhstan» under the program: «Scientific and methodological support for the creation of inventoriesof biological resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan», funded by the Ministry of Education and Scienceof the Republic of Kazakhstan.Key words: Actinomycetes, streptomycetes, phosphate mobilization, cellulosolytic, amylolytic, nitrogen-fixing activities.
Published
2017-11-05
How to Cite
Ж, Бержанова Р. Бержанова Р.Ж., Мукашева Т.Д., Игнатова Л.В., Сыдыкбекова Р.К., Бектилеуова Н.К, Омирбекова А.А. Распространение актинобактерий в некоторых почвах Казахстана и их экологические функции. Eurasian Journal of Ecology, [S.l.], v. 51, n. 2, p. 81-93, nov. 2017. Available at: <http://bulletin-ecology.kaznu.kz/index.php/1-eco/article/view/769>. Date accessed: 11 dec. 2017.
Section
АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ СОХРАНЕНИЯ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО РАЗНООБРАЗИЯ